Trema orientale (L.) Blume

 
  • Family : ULMACEAE
    (Elm Family)
  • Family (Hindi name) : KHIRK FAMILY
  • Family (as per The APG System III) : Cannabaceae
  • Basionym : Celtis orientalis L.
  • Synonym(s) : Sponia wightii Planch.
  • Species Name (as per The IPNI) : Trema orientale (L.) Blume
  • Common name : Pigeon Wood, Oriental Nettle, Oriental trema, Gunpowder tree, Charcoal tree
  • Vernacular name :
    • Kiruhale (Kannada)
    • Ambaratthi, Taeliaamaram (Tamil)
    • Jivani, Kharkas (Oria)
    • Gio (Hindi)
    • Budamuru, Chakkamanu, Godlanelli, Kondajonna, Kakamushti, Moralai (Telugu)
    • Aamathali, Aarni, Amapotti, Amarathi, Ami, Javanthi, Omamaram, Pottama, Pottamaram, Ratthi, Thundinaru (Malayalam)
  • Habit : Tree
  • Habitat : Tropical dry deciduous forests, Tropical moist deciduous forests, also in the plains
  • Comments / notes : Common in forests above 400m of deciduous to Tropical semi-evergreen forests. Also in ravines and in cleared places.
  • Flower, Fruit : January-October
  • Distribution :
    • Andhra Pradesh : Srikakulam district, Vishakapatnam district, Vizianagaram district, East Godavari district, West Godavari district, Krishna district, Guntur district, Prakasam district, Kurnool district, Nellore district, Kadapa district, Anantapur district, Chittoor district
    • Telangana : Khammam district, Nalgonda district, Mehboobnagar district
    • Karnataka : Bengaluru district, Ballari district, Chikkamagaluru district, Davanagare district, Hassan district, Kodagu (Coorg) district, Mysuru district, Shivamogga district, Udupi district, Uttara Kannada district
    • Kerala : All districts of Kerala
    • Maharashtra : Akola district
    • Odisha : Throughout
    • Arunachal Pradesh : Arunachal Pradesh
  • Native : Indo-Malaysia
  • World Distribution : India, Tropical Africa, SE. Asia through Malesia to Queensland, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia
  • Conservation Status : Not Evaluated (NE)
  • Literature :
    • J.L.Ellis, 1990- Flora of Nallamalais Vol. 2
    • H.O. Saxena & M. Brahmam, 1995- Flora of Orissa Vol. 3
    • R. S. Rao et al., 1986 - Flora of West Godavari District
    • R. S. Rao and S. H. Sreeramulu, 1986 - Flora of Srikakulam District
    • H. O. Saxena and M. Brahmam, 1989 - The Flora of Similipahar (Similipal), Orissa
    • Sudhakar Reddy, C et al., 2009. Tree Wealth of Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India
    • Sasidharan, N. 2011. Flowering plants of Kerala. DVD, V 2, KFRI.
    • Saldanha & Nicolson, 1976 – Flora of Hassan District
    • Cecil J. Saldanha, S. R. Ramesh (1984). Flora of Karnataka State vol. 1. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi
    • Gowda, 2004 - Sringeri
    • Ramaswamy & Razi, 1973 – Flora of Bangalore District
    • Keshava Murthy & Yoganarasimhan, 1990 – Flora of Coorg District
    • Gopalakrishna Bhat, 2003 – Flora of Udupi District
    • Manjunath et al., 2003 – Flora of Davanagere District
    • Gopalakrishna Bhat, 2014 - Flora of South Kanara
  • Read more :
  • Citation : Sankara Rao, K., Deepak Kumar (2024). India Flora Online. http://indiafloraonline-ces.iisc.ac.in/plants.php?name=Trema orientale. Downloaded on 20 May 2024.

Habitat

India Distribution

World Distribution

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